Элювиальный процесс и гипергенная геохимическая трансформация силикатной части покровных отложений водоразделов Молдовы
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АЛЕКСЕЕВ, Василий; CERBARI, Valerian; БУРГЕЛЯ, Аурелий; VARLAMOV, Eugen. Элювиальный процесс и гипергенная геохимическая трансформация силикатной части покровных отложений водоразделов Молдовы . In: Buletinul Institutului de Geologie şi Seismologie al AŞM. 2010, nr. 1, pp. 52-60. ISSN 1857-0046.
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Buletinul Institutului de Geologie şi Seismologie al AŞM
Numărul 1 / 2010 / ISSN 1857-0046

Элювиальный процесс и гипергенная геохимическая трансформация силикатной части покровных отложений водоразделов Молдовы

Pag. 52-60

Алексеев Василий, Cerbari Valerian, Бургеля Аурелий, Varlamov Eugen
 
Институт почвоведения, агрохимии и защиты почв «Николае Димо»
 
Disponibil în IBN: 16 decembrie 2013


Rezumat

The article continues a series of publications on hypergenic processes in quaternary deposits of watersheds of Moldova. As a result of investigations, for the first time in Moldova and probably for Eurasian steppe and forest-steppe area in the whole, there were found volumes of eluvial losses of masses of oxides of the basic macroelements from covering deposits of watersheds under action of chernozem pedogenesis. Volumes of macroelements' losses were calculated on those of masses of primary and clay minerals, derived by the use of quantitative mineralogical analysis. As a witness of changes in soils there was used quartz as material resistant to weathering. Investigations were implemented in contemporary damping zones with hydrothermal coefficients (damping coefficients by Visotsky-Ivanov) 0.50-0.55, 0.60-0.65, 0.65-0.70 and 0.70-0.80. Volumes of eluvial losses of masses of oxides of macroelements are regular nature and grow as soil moisture increases. It was found that eluvial losses of oxides in subtype series of chernozems by SiO2 were from 200 t/ha in ordinary to 800 t/ha in leached ones, by Al2O3 - from 100 to 450 t/ha correspondingly. In weathering of iron minerals soil received from 30 to 190 t/ha of Fe2O3. Losses of СаО were measured by 5-15 t/ha, MgO – 3-75 t/ha. Losses of oxides of alkali elements K and Na were for the first one from 5 to 27 t/ha, for the second one – from 6 to 13 t/ha. Total losses of oxides of macroelements by subtypes of chernozems as result of weathering were expressed by sizes in 400- 600 t/ha in ordinary and in 1200-1600 t/ha in typical and leached ones. Data on losses of macroelements obtained by the use of mineralogical analysis contradict with the concept of inertness of aluminosilicate part of chernozems (including its coarse material represented by feldspars and mica) based on chemical analysis. They have an important methodological significance, because they allow forming a new point of view to geochemistry of macroelements and ecology of steppe and forest-steppe landscapes.

В результате проведенных исследований впервые в Молдове и, вероятно, для евразийского степного и лесостепного пространства в целом определены объемы элювиального выноса масс оксидов основных макроэлементов из покровных отложений водоразделов под воздействием гипергенеза. Объемы выноса макроэлементов рассчитаны на основании баланса масс первичных и глинистых минералов, установленного с помощью количественного минералогического анализа. Они носят закономерный характер и увеличиваются по мере роста увлажненности почв. Полученные данные обусловлены педогенным разрушением первичных и глинистых минералов.