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MUKHIN, Viktor; VOROPAEVA, Nadejda; SPIRIDONOV, Yuriy; BOGDANICH, N.; GUR’JANOV, Vasiliy. Active carbons from vegetal raw materials solve ecological problems. In: The International Conference dedicated to the 55th anniversary from the foundation of the Institute of Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova. 28-30 mai 2014, Chișinău. Chișinău, Republica Moldova: Institutul de Chimie al AȘM, 2014, p. 37.
|The International Conference dedicated to the 55th anniversary from the foundation of the Institute of Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova 2014|
Conferința "The International Conference dedicated to the 55th anniversary from the foundation of the Institute of Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova" |
Chișinău, Moldova, 28-30 mai 2014
Progressive environmental pollution caused by the expansion of industrial production and an increase in population size brought to the forefront the necessity to solve environmental concerns. Of the large number of available materials only active carbons (AC) can solve all the problems of biosphere protection (atmosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere) with high efficiency and minimal costs . Environmental carbon adsorption technologies require continuous improvement of adsorption and strength properties of AC and broadening of raw materials for their production. A new promising raw material for the manufacture of AC is the large variety of vegetal, including wood waste. Their volumes are increasing rapidly in the world and the only way of their disposal is incineration. In recent years we developed three major new technologies of AC production from vegetal raw materials and showed the perspective of their application in environmental engineering. Active carbons of brand RAU from straw of different crops (wheat, barley, oats, canola, soy, etc.) have a developed sorbent pores volume (Ws) equal to 0.40-0.70 cm3/g. This allows achieving a high efficiency in detoxification of soils contaminated with pesticide residues, as well as feed. In Russia, stocks of this type of renewable raw materials reach 100 million tons per year. Vegetal agricultural residues (corn cobs, husks of sunflower, cotton lignin etc.) are the feedstock for furfural production. Liquid molding method developed at ОАО «ЭНПО «Неорганика» allows obtaining spherical granules of high strength AC of FAS brand (strength at abrasion GOST 16188-70 is 99 %, crushing strength - to 7 t/cm2) with a volume of micropores (Vmi) 0.7 cm/g. Such AC is in demand in industrial ecology processes, solvent recovery, human ecology, etc. Another type of plant materials - nut shells and fruit stones - allows obtaining AC that meets international quality requirements: mesopore volume (Vme) > 0.35 cm/g, the strength > 90 %, ash <5%. The total volume of wood waste in Russia is around 150 mill.m3 per year, with the proportion of sawdust and lignin not less than mill.m3. By chemical activation of sawdust or lignin developed in NArFU (Arkhangelsk) AC of "Carbolin" brand is obtained having a surface area of 2500 m2/g, and iodine adsorption capacity of 200-300%) and methylene blue - up to 600 mg/g. The powder form of Carbolin sorbent makes it indispensable in potable water and wastewater treatment. The creation and commissioning of pilot plants for the production of RAU, FAS and "Carbolin" with a capacity of 50 tons/year each will allow a quick start of their industrial production.