Types of callus mass of Withania somnifera (l.) dunal
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CUTCOVSCHII-MUŞTUC, Alina; CALALB, Tatiana; CHIORCHINA, Nina; SOFRONII, Maria. Types of callus mass of Withania somnifera (l.) dunal. In: Conservation of plant diversity. Ediția 4, 28-30 septembrie 2015, Chișinău. Chișinău: Gradina Botanica (Institut), 2015, p. 65. ISBN 978-9975-3036-8-2.
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Conservation of plant diversity
Ediția 4, 2015
Simpozionul "Conservation of plant diversity"
Chișinău, Moldova, 28-30 septembrie 2015

Types of callus mass of Withania somnifera (l.) dunal


Pag. 65-65

Cutcovschii-Muştuc Alina1, Calalb Tatiana2, Chiorchina Nina1, Sofronii Maria1
 
1 Botanical Garden (Institute) of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova ,
2 ”Nicolae Testemițanu” State University of Medicine and Pharmacy
 
Disponibil în IBN: 14 mai 2019



Teza

Withania somnifera belongs to the family Solanaceae, it is a perennial plant, but in the conditions of the Republic of Moldova behaves as an annual plant. Due to its characteristics, Withania somnifera is of particular interest for medicine, this fact favours its introduction and cultivation by different methods and technologies, especially by in vitro culture.  The micropropagation of Withania somnifera has proven to be a great method of large scale production of virus-free plants. This method can also be used in order to obtain raw material for the industrial extraction of biologically active substances. Multiplication rate in culture in vitro is much higher in a shorter period of time for obtaining plants. The in vitro experiments performed on Withania somnifera aimed at obtaining callus mass in order to produce further meristemoids that give rise to plants. There were tested different types of explants, used as biological material, inoculated on MS medium supplemented with growth regulators. As a result of the carried out research, we have found out that BAP (1 mg/l) with IAA (0.4mg/l) are the most effective growth regulators for initiating organogenic processes.  The initiation of organogenic processes at callus level can be demonstrated by histological analysis of callus mass. The media that were selected for callus culture have regenerative capacity, as demonstrated by the appearance of leaf primordia. The vigorous development of morphogenetic centres depends on certain factors: the duration of callus cultivation, certain growth regulators, sampling period, the stage of plant development, as well as external factors such as temperature, light etc.  The morphogenetic centres of Withania somnifera are composed of compact, small, closely located cells. Like the cells of callus tissue, these cells contain chloroplasts.   The callus mass, derived from fragments of leaf lamina, contains morphogenetic centres (up to 8 meristemoids) in its margins, the callus cells are large, parenchymal ones, while the meristemoids are composed of small, compactly arranged cells. The cells contain chloroplasts. Most morphogenetic centres are found in the callus that was derived from the tip or the base of the leaf. Callus is compact, of whitish-green to intense green colour (in the places where morphogenetic centres are found).  The callus mass derived from fragments of shoots is of whitish-green colour, which becomes greenish-brown after 50 days. Callus is porous and contains few morphogenetic centres (up to 3 meristemoids), which are subsequently inhibited. The morphogenetic centres are distinguished at the tip of the callus and at the point where the callus interacts with the shoot. Callus cells are large, parenchymal, with large vacuoles and intercellular spaces. They contain a small number of chloroplasts. The cell membrane is thickened.   The callus mass derived from apical meristem is formed at the base of the shoot. It isn’t compact, is porous and is of whitish green colour, with the shoot growth, callus mass is inhibited. The callus is non-morphogenetic, the cells are parenchymal, with small intercellular spaces. The cells have thickened membrane and are arranged irregularly.   As a result of the research, it has been found that the morphogenetic callus derives from leaf blade, on MS medium supplemented with BAP + IAA growth regulators. For a complete development of the plantlet, the derived bud is inoculated on culture medium, freshly prepared for development. It has been found that the morphogenetic centres are located on callus surface and, on margins, they are protected by parenchymal cells of the callus that have thicker walls.