|Conţinutul numărului revistei|
|Ultima descărcare din IBN:|
| SM ISO690:2012|
PEIXOTO, Joao; FONSECA, Ana. Migraţia, dezvoltarea şi remitenţele în Europa: consecinţele şi rolul instituţiilor. In: Moldoscopie. 2008, nr. 1(40), pp. 169-193. ISSN 1812-2566.
|Numărul 1(40) / 2008 / ISSN 1812-2566|
The links between migration and development, including the specific role of
migrants’ remittances, have been extensively studied in the last few years. The
priority given to this issue is easily understandable. On the one hand, international
migration flows have been on the rise during recent decades, facing an increasing
number of obstacles, including a generally restrictive stance of host
countries’ immigration policies, but overcoming them all, even at the price of
immigrants’ rights. On the other hand, international differences on economic
development levels are still among the main explanatory factors of migration.
Migration flows often result from a lack of development perspectives in the sending
countries, reinforcing the economic potential of host ones. However, a number
of retroactive effects emerge: the growth of migration is often accompanied
by abundant economic transfers back home, including remittances, investments
and benefits from international trade, besides information and human capital.
In sum, from the point of view of sending countries, migration and development
may reinforce each other, being this crucial for the increase of well-being
and the decrease of migration potential.
In this paper, the specific role of remittances in the migration-development
nexus will be examined. It will be argued that migrants’ remittances exert mixed
impacts (positive, negative and neutral) over the economic development of sending
countries, and that institutions play a crucial role in maximizing the positive
and minimizing the negative ones. The main geographical area taken into consideration
is Europe, one of the most important world regions in the volume of
international migration, and particularly Central and Eastern Europe, a crossroad
for many inward and outward flows, and also a fast-growing beneficiary
of immigrants’ remittances.
In the first section, some trends of current international migration in Europe
will be highlighted, including flows involving Central and Eastern Europe, as
well as some causal factors and prospects for continuing migration in the future. In the second section, remittances will be observed as one of the main consequences
of international migration, and an evaluation of its volume in Central
and Eastern European (and Central Asian) economies will be done. In the third
section, impacts of remittances over development will be stressed, revealing its
mixed effects (positive, negative and neutral). Finally, the specific role of economic,
social and political institutions will be discussed, arguing that they exert
a vital role in determining which outcomes will predominate.