Evolution of elements in a maize breeding program
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633.15:631.527 (49)
Хлебные злаки. Зерновые культуры (682)
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BOROZAN, Pantelimon, MUSTYATSA, Simion, SPÎNU, Valentina. Evolution of elements in a maize breeding program. In: International Congress of Geneticists and Breeders from the Republic of Moldova, Ed. 11, 15-16 iunie 2021, Chişinău. Chișinău, Republica Moldova: Centrul Editorial-Poligrafic al Universităţii de Stat din Moldova, 2021, Ediția 11, p. 74. ISBN 978-9975-933-56-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.53040/cga11.2021.053
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International Congress of Geneticists and Breeders from the Republic of Moldova
Ediția 11, 2021
Congresul "International Congress of Geneticists and Breeders from the Republic of Moldova"
11, Chişinău, Moldova, 15-16 iunie 2021

Evolution of elements in a maize breeding program

DOI:https://doi.org/10.53040/cga11.2021.053
CZU: 633.15:631.527

Pag. 74-74

Borozan Pantelimon, Mustyatsa Simion, Spînu Valentina
 
Institute of Crop Science "Porumbeni"
 
 
Disponibil în IBN: 16 iunie 2021


Rezumat

In this paper we present some results of inbred lines improvement during an approximately 40-year period, including information about the changes that here taken place in breeding of early maize for northern areas. The fundamental modification of breeding strategy consisting in the replace of double and three way cross hybrids with single and modified single cross hybrids. Other main characteristic that distinguishes today’s breeding from earlier generations is the rigorous selection of germplasm sources included into starting populations. In the first cycle of inbreds development were used a large diversity of maize germplasm from foreign early hybrids and available public lines. Next cycles of breeding are characterized as the improvement of elite lines, predominantly from middle late group of maturity, though the addition of favorable alleles from identificated donors. The more important decision was the choice of parents included in crosses as initial material and type of segregating populations to develop new inbred lines. The best inbreds were recognized based on research data from testing program and the very useful germplasm, adapted to temperate and limited by season areas, has been from Reid Iodent, BSSS-B37, European Flint and Lancaster heterotic groups. Selfing in two parent hybrid populations followed by pedigree phenotypic selection and late testing for combining ability were used as breeding methodology. In most cases two parent populations involved the recycling elite line and early related inbred lines as donors. Current breeding changes for inbreds and hybrids development include the classification of related inbreds into heterotic groups. Heterotic patterns are determined empirically by relating the heterosis grain yield in hybrids to the origin, genetic background of the parents. The choice of useful heterotic patterns depends on the frequency of high performance hybrids obtained from crosses of parental lines derived from different germplasm groups. Direct comparisons between new inbred lines and their progenitor lines for agronomic traits have demonstrated essential improvement for stalk lodging, shorter period from planting to silking and maturity, grain yield and moisture at harvest, tolerance to common and head smut, other traits measured in inbreds per se. Presently, inbred grain yield of recycled derivates are more important for seed production of single cross hybrids and was increased significantly. The review of inbred changes over the years shows constant progress in grain yield and stress tolerance to drought and high plant density. Other traits as stay green, juvenile growth, grain test weight, number of ear per plant, shorter anthers – silking interval have changed also under phenotypic selection. More breeding progress was obtained with germplasm from Reid Iodent heterotic group, widely used as seed parent in hybrid combination. New hybrids from FAO 150–220 units are realized into heterotic pattern Reid Iodent×European Flint and FAO 230–300 are sinthetized into heterotic pattern Reid Iodent×BSSS-B37.