Winter durum wheat in the Republic of Moldova
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2020-03-01 17:27
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ROTARI, Silvia; GORE, Andrei; LYATAMBORG, Svetlana. Winter durum wheat in the Republic of Moldova. In: Ştiinţele vieţii în dialogul generațiilor: conexiuni dintre mediul academic, universitar și de afaceri. 21-22 octombrie 2019, Chişinău. Chișinău, Republica Moldova: Tipogr. "Biotehdesign", 2019, pp. 167-168.
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Ştiinţele vieţii în dialogul generațiilor: conexiuni dintre mediul academic, universitar și de afaceri 2019
Conferința "Life sciences in the dialogue of generations: connections between universities, academia and business community"
ed. IV, Chişinău, Moldova, 21-22 octombrie 2019

Winter durum wheat in the Republic of Moldova


Pag. 167-168

Rotari Silvia, Gore Andrei, Lyatamborg Svetlana
 
Institute of Genetics, Physiology and Plant Protection
 
Disponibil în IBN: 12 decembrie 2019


Rezumat

Durum wheat in its importance among all types of wheat is the second crop in the world after common wheat and occupies about 18 million hectares in the world or 10% of all wheat crops. The grain of this crop is indispensable in the production of high-quality pasta. Hard varieties are characterized by high-quality gluten, which is especially appreciated in the production of pasta. It is used quite widely in the baking, cereal and confectionary industries. In order to create more productive winter-hardy and nonobstructing forms and varieties of winter durum wheat, which, according to the set of biological characteristics and economic characteristics, were at the level of the best varieties of winter durum wheat, carried out interspecific and intraspecific crosses. Highly productive, low-stem lines, which are distinguished by good winter hardiness, resistance to powdery mildew, rust and fusarium, are isolated from multiple combinations by repeated selection. In subsequent years, these forms were studied in a control and competitive test. The study of new lines in the control and competitive nursery allowed us to choose some of them that surpass the best varieties in productivity and resistance to abiotic and biotic environmental factors. As a result of all this work, winter durum wheat varieties were created: Auriu 273, Hordeiforme 333, 335, 340, Hordeiforme 3, Auriu 2, Sofidurum, Leukurum 2,3 and others. A characteristic feature of these varieties is good winter hardiness, mid-season, resistance to diseases and lodging, high technological parameters and others. They have a large amber-yellow grain containing a high percentage of protein (13-15%) and gluten (25-30%).Productivity is the main criterion for the effectiveness of breeding work with any crop, including winter durum wheat.Breeding a new variety with the highest possible level of productivity is the main task of modern breeding. The spike productivity of each variety depends on the number of spikelets and grains in the spike, as well as the mass of each spike separately. The varieties Sofidurum, Auriu 2, Hordeiforme 340 and others have high productivity. For new intensive forms of winter durum wheat, on average over 4 years, the yield was 3.4-5.7 t / ha, which is 0.8-1.55 t / ha more than the standard. Due to the high productive ability and resistance to abiotic and biotic factors, 4 varieties (Auriu 273, Hordeiforme 333, 335, 340) were zoned in our country in 1998, 2000, 2008 and 2016, respectively, and two varieties Auriu 2 and Sofidurum are studied in the State Commission variety testing of crops. Thus, by the methods of interspecific and intraspecific hybridization using the original starting material, the varieties Auriu 273, Hordeiforme 333, 335, 340, Hordeiforme 3 Auriu 2, Sofidurum, Leukurum 2,3 and others were created.