Bases for genetic improvement of grain legumes and cereals
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BOTNARI, Vasile; ANDRONIC, Larisa; COTENCO, Eugenia. Bases for genetic improvement of grain legumes and cereals. In: International congress on oil and protein crops. 20-24 mai 2018, Chişinău. Chișinău, Republica Moldova: Tipografia "Artpoligraf", 2018, p. 64. ISBN 978-9975-3178-5-6.
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International congress on oil and protein crops 2018
Congresul "International congress on oil and protein crops"
Chişinău, Moldova, 20-24 mai 2018

Bases for genetic improvement of grain legumes and cereals


Pag. 64-64

Botnari Vasile, Andronic Larisa, Cotenco Eugenia
 
Institute of Genetics, Physiology and Plant Protection
 
Disponibil în IBN: 2 septembrie 2019


Rezumat

Grain legumes and cereals occupy an important place in human and animal nutrition, considered as good sources of proteins, oil and carbohydrates. The research strategies of crop improvement offer tools in the selection of important traits, choice of breeding methods according to the pointed out targets. Research in the field of genetics and improvement of cereal and legume crops in the Republic of Moldova has been initiated since year 1957 when there has been founded the Department of Plant Genetics led by theAcademician A. Kovarski. Important achievements have been obtained in gene pooling, identification of new genes or sources of useful genes for plant breeding and developing the initial breeding stock. The theoretical and practical basics of genetics and plant breeding have been developed due to schools of the Academician A. Jucenco, Prof. V. Lîsicov, Academician A. Jacotã, Prof. P. Buiucli and new mechanisms for extending the spectrum of genetic variability, genetic and ecological effects have been discovered which allowed developing new methods for improvement of the adaptive and productive potential of plants. Within the institute, significant results have bee obtained in the genetic improvement of wheat, rye, triticale, soybean, chickpeas, lentils, peanuts, etc. exploring possibilities for increasing variability through different hybridization methods, induced recombinogenesis and experimental mutagenesis. Research has been developed to elucidate complicated genetic mechanisms that control the expression of characters important for improvement; perfecting different aspects of the improvement methodologies, the heredity of valuable features through the use of heterosis, inbredness and haploid inducers. Important place has been the genetic research on the inheritance of quantitative and qualitative characters, genotype-environment interactions, host - pathogen. Progress has been made in understanding the genetic control of important characters such as productivity and content of protein in wheat , triticale, soybean, chickpeas, corn; resistance to dropping of wheat, triticale; tolerance to fungal diseases in wheat, triticale, corn, etc. Also developing biotechnological methods for making isogenic lines by applying barley androgenetics, extending the variability through in vitro culture to triticale. Besides there have been developed biotechnological techniques to obtain isogenic lines by applying barley androgenesis, extending the variability through in vitro culture of triticale. On the basis of the theoretical foundations there were created and homologated triticale varieties Ingen 33, Ingen 35, Ingen 93 predestined for animal feed, Ingen 40 (homologated in 2015) and Ingen 54 (tested at CTSPP), characterized by increased protein content and gluten proposed for the bakery industry. The original results in creating varieties and new varieties have been confirmed by 18 cereal varieties of homologated cereal crops (common wheat, durum wheat, rye, oats), about 16 varieties of leguminous crops (chickpeas, lentils, soybeans, beans, kidney beans). The use of heterozygosity in dferent hybridization schemes in sugar sorghum has allowed tcreation of 4 hybrids (SASM-1 - SASM-4) with biomass productivity of up to 80-90 t / ha under absence of irrigation, pollination resistance and adapted to the cultivation and mechanized harvesting. For the first time, maize lines with pronounced haploinductive capacity ( from 10 to -17%) have been created based on which dihaploid lines with high combinatorial capacity have been developed. The varieties developed in the Institute are characterized by high productivity, grain quality as well as resistance to limiting environmental factors (unfavorable temperatures, the most aggressive pathogens) and present the actual potential for implementation in the real sector of the economy as well as valuable sources for enriching the genotype of cereal and legume crops.