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GASHEV, S.; BYKOVA, E.; MARDONOVA, L.; MITROPOLSKIY, M.; STOLBOV, V.. Trends of fauna changing in the Holocene in Western Siberia. In: Sustainable use, protection of animal world and forest management in the context of climate change. Ediția IX, 12-13 octombrie 2016, Chișinău. Chișinău: Institutul de Zoologie, 2016, pp. 51-52. ISBN 978-9975-3022-7-2.
|Sustainable use, protection of animal world and forest management in the context of climate change
Ediția IX, 2016
Conferința "Sustainable use, protection of animal world and forest management in the context of climate change" |
Chișinău, Moldova, 12-13 octombrie 2016
Based on the analysis of dynamics of the fauna of Western Siberia during the Holocene can be given a classification and periodization of the main faunal trends that definitely are related to periodic climate change processes at the different levels: I. Global trends (the reasons are global warming, glacier retreat to the North and disappearance of Impounded Lake: 1. Early Holocene (disjunctive) trend (the reason is forming belt of taiga forests divided part of species into “tundra” and “steppe” species, subspecies etc.). Some species of open habitats developed disjunctive ranges as a result of distinguishing the effects arising forest zone. Some of these species is occupied tundra and forest tundra, and the other one - the forest-steppe. Currently these species are represented in these areas as separate subspecies, such as, Microtus gregalis maior or Lagopus lagopus lagopus in the north of Western Siberia, and Microtus gregalis gregalis, Lagopus lagopus pallasi in the south of it. Also it can be isolated populations such as populations of Carabus sibiricus and Chrysolina exanthematica gemmifera. 2. The European trend (leaded the formation of the western areas of Palearctic species). It began in the ancient Holocene (~12-10 thousand years ago) as a result of the movement of European species to the east by the south part of Western Siberia. To date, it continues to species movement from west to east: Erinaceus roumanicus, Nyctalus nuctula, Microtus rossiaemeridionalis, Turdus merula, Parus caeruleus, Chloris chloris, Accanthis cannabina, Lissotriton vulgaris, Cottus gobio, Alburnus alburnus and other. 3. Siberian trend (leaded the formation of the eastern areas of Palearctic species). It began in the middle Holocene (the Atlantic period, ~5-7 thousand years ago) as a result of the movement of Siberian species to the west by the central and northern part of Western Siberia. As an example distribution such species as Sorex roboratus, Corvus orientalis, Losustella certhiola, Phulloscopus proregulus, Ph.fuscatus, Muscicapa sibirica, M.daurica, Zoothera sibirica, Uragus sibiricus, Ocyris spodocephalus, Rana amurensis, Tamias sibiricus, Martes zibellina, Mustela sibirica and other. II. Fluctuating trends (the reason is periodic regional climate change): а. Super long-term (thousand-year) periods (1000-1200-year, 1800-2000 and 5000year cycles); b. Long-term (hundred-year) periods (80-111-year and 500-year cycles); c. Medium-term (brikner’s period) periods (30-50 years and an average of 35 years (Climatology, 1989); at this time there is rotation of latitudinal and meridional transfer of air masses and the shift Voeikov axis - from the end of the 19 century after 34 and 36 years); d. short-term (ten-year) periods (≈ 11-year cycles by Chizhevsky, that associated with solar activity and equal 10 or 12 years); e. annual (seasonal) periods (associated with the seasonal cycles of weather and cycles of vegetation). 4. Central Asian trend (the reason is a periodic change of continentality of regional climate - change of temperature and humidity) presented by such species as: Haemiechinus auritus, Spermophillus pygmaeus, Sicista subtilis, Aquila heliaca, A.nipalensis, Hieraaetus pennatus, Falco naumanni, Otis tarda, Glareola nordmanni, Upupa epops, Oenanthe isabellina, Gloydius halys, Bufo viridis, Mantis religiosa, Phaneroptera falcata, Argiope bruennichi, Lycosa singoriensis, Saga pedo, Latrodectus tredecimguttatus, Pelecanus crispus, P.onocrotalus, Egretta alba, Botaurus stellaris, Ixobrychus minutus, Plegadis falcinellus, Aythya nyroca, Himantopus himantopus, Recurvirostra avocetta, Larus ichthyaetus, Sterna caspia and other. 5. Mongolian Chinese trend (the reason is the periodic increasing of temperature and decreasing of humidity) is shown as a distribution such species as Spermophilus erythrogenys, Myospalax myospalax, Ellobius talpinus, Tadorna ferruginea, Otus scops, Parus palustris, Parus cyanus, Carpodacus erythrinus, C. auratus (gibelio), Perccottus gllenii, Misgurnus nikolskyi, Pterostichus ehnbergi, P. burjaticus, Nebria subdilatata, Pterostichus drescheri and other. 6. Mediterranean trend (the reason is the periodic temperature and humidity increasing) represented by some species as Netta rufina, Streptopelia decaocto, Alcedo atthis, Lanius excubitor, Phoenicurus ochruros and other. 3. Arctic trend (the reason is a periodic change of continentality of regional climate - change of temperature and humidity), for example, movement of the northern species to the south during the winter (Alopex lagopus, Gulo gulo, Lagopus muta, Nyctea scandiaca, Bombycilla garrulus, Nucifraga caryocatactes, Pyrrhula pyrchulla, Pinocola enucleator, Loxia leucoptera etc.), when they are reached not only sub-taiga, but also forest-steppe zone. III. Anthropogenic trend (the reason is the landscape changing as a result of human activity, special or accidental introduction of alien species, species elimination or their habitats degradation). Some species as Mus musculus, Rattus nirvegicus, Columba livia, Passer domesticus и P.montanus, Ondatra zibetica, Nyctereutes procyonoides, Mustela vison, Costatella integra, Borysthenia naticina, Viviparus viviparus, Pomacea canaliculata, Melanoides tuberculatus etc. came to region. At the same time another one as Mustela lutreola, Numenius tenuirostris, Ocyris aureolus etc. were extinct. The work has been carried out within the framework of the basic part of the state assignment of the Russian Ministry of Education and Science #01201460003.