Cancerul organelor cavităţii bucale
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ŢÎBÎRNĂ, Andrei. Cancerul organelor cavităţii bucale . In: Buletinul Academiei de Ştiinţe a Moldovei. Ştiinţe Medicale. 2012, nr. 2(34), pp. 185-190. ISSN 1857-0011.
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Buletinul Academiei de Ştiinţe a Moldovei. Ştiinţe Medicale
Numărul 2(34) / 2012 / ISSN 1857-0011

Cancerul organelor cavităţii bucale

Pag. 185-190

Ţîbîrnă Andrei
 
Universitatea de Stat de Medicină şi Farmacie „Nicolae Testemiţanu“
 
Disponibil în IBN: 15 decembrie 2013


Rezumat

De obicei, în literatura de specialitate referitor la cancerul mucoasei cavităţii bucale se descriu mai mult tumorile limbii şi ale mucoasei obrazului. Circa 55% din cancerele organelor cavităţii bucale revin cancerului lingval. Referitor la celelalte localizări părerile diferă, totuşi se observă o astfel de structurare după frecvenţă: limba, obrazul, planşeul bucal, creasta alveolară a maxilarului superior, creasta alveolară a maxilarului inferior, palatinul moale şi dur. Noi deosebim 3 forme de cancer al organelor cavităţii bucale: papilară, ulceroasă, nodulară. În tratamentul tumorii primare se folosesc metode chirurgicale, radioterapeutice şi combinate. Lipsa unui efect stabil prin aplicarea metodelor pur chirurgicale i-a făcut pe mulţi cercetători să caute metode mai efective. O astfel de metoda s-a dovedit a fi tratamentul combinat (intervenţie chirurgicală radioterapie). În caz de răspândire a tumorii pe creasta alveolară a mandibulei şi infi ltrarea în ea, noi efectuăm o electrooperaţie lărgită – rezecţie subtotală a limbii, planşeului bucal şi a segmentului respectiv al mandibulei. În toate localizările cancerului organelor cavităţii bucale, indiferent dacă se depistează Mt sau doar se suspectează, noi supunem radioacţiunii paralel cu focarul primar şi zonele ganglionare în plan de tratament preoperator. După ce s-a obţinut localizarea procesului, se aplică terapia ionizantă locală adâncă.

Usually in the literature on cancer of oral mucosa cavity are described more frequent lesion of tongue and cheek mucosa. About 55% of all cancers of oral cavity is cancer of tongue. There are different opinions about localization and frequency in that region: tongue, cheek, alveolar ridge of upper jaw, lower jaw, soft and hard palatine. We detect three the main forms of cancer of oral cavity: papillary, ulcerative, nodular. The treatment of primary tumor: use surgery, radiotherapy and combine treatment. Lack of a stable effect by applying just surgical methods has led many researchers to seek more effective methods. Such a method is combine treatment (surgery radiotherapy), in case of spreading tumor on the mandible and alveolar ridge, we perform an extended electrosurgery - subtotal resection of the tongue, and segment of the mandible. In all localization of cancer detected in this region, with presence or absent of cervical Metastazation we use radiotherapy on the primary tumor and in ganglion. After having obtained the localization of lesion we have applying local ionizing therapy.

Как правило, в специализированной литературе, посвященной опухоли слизистой оболочки рта, описаны в большей мере опухоли языка и слизистой оболочки щеки. Около 55% из опухолей органов слизистой оболочки полости рта соответствует раку языка. Существуют различные мнения по локализации и частоте опухолей слизистой полости рта: язык, щёки, дно полости рта, альвеолярный отросток верхней челюсти, нижней челюсти, мягкое и твердое нёба. Мы различаем 3 вида рака слизистой полости рта: папиллярный, язвенный, узловой. При лечении первичной опухоли используется методы хирургического вмешательства, лучевая терапия и комбинированное лечение. Отсутствие стойкого эффекта, применяя только хирургический метод, заставило многих исследователей искать более эффективные пути лечения. Таким способом оказалось комбинированное лечение (операция лучевая терапия)ю В случае распространения опухоли в нижней челюсти и альвеолярного отростка, мы проводим расширенную електрооперацию - субтотальная резекция языка, дна полости рта и сегмента нижней челюсти. Во всех областях рака слизистой оболочки рта при обнаружении региональных метастаз или при их отсутствии, мы облучаем не только первичный очаг, но и зоны регионального метастазирования.

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