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VLADANOV, Ivan; PLEŞACOV, Alexei; COLȚA, Artur. Bladder cancer risk factors and prevention. In: MedEsperaInternational Medical Congress for Students and Young Doctors. 8, 24-26 septembrie 2020, Chişinău. Chisinau, Republic of Moldova: 2020, p. 79. ISBN 978-9975-151-11-5.
Congresul "International Medical Congress for Students and Young Doctors" |
8th edition, Chişinău, Moldova, 24-26 septembrie 2020
Introduction. A great number of bladder cancer cases are due to the carcinogenic substances that affect the bladder urothelium, which is eliminated with urine. The risk factors (smoking, occupational factors, infections, inflammation, radiation exposure and others) play a major role in tumor development and progression. This cancer type shows the highest incidence, reported within an occupational environment (Dye industry employees). Moreover, it is the first evidence –based cancer that has proven an infectious etiology of the Schistosoma haematobium parasite, as well as the interaction between exposure to environmental factors and genetic polymorphism has been demonstrated. The environmental harmful substances, toxic workplace conditions and lifestyle particularities might increase the risk of bladder cancer. Aim of the study. To assess the risk factors in patients diagnosed and treated for bladder cancer. Materials and methods.. Over the 04.2018 - 06.2019 period, 103 patients diagnosed with bladder cancer were admitted within the Urology Clinic of "N. Testemitanu" SUMPh. The risk factors, living conditions, age and other parameters were analyzed. Results. Out of 103 patients, 28 (27.2%) were females and 75 (72.8%) were males. The most vulnerable studied age-groups was over 60 years, whereas the mean age was lower in men64.7 years (from 28 years to over 80 years) and 68.2 years (from 41 to over 80 years) was for women. According to the patient’s residence place, the study results were as following: urban62 cases (60.2%) and rural 41 cases (39.8%). Out of 103 patients, 48 (46.6%) patients used tobacco, of which 10 -women (35.7%) and 38- men (50.7%). According to the occupational factors (i.e. dyes, rubber, textile, furniture and other industries), 9 (8.7%) patients out of 103 were identified, 2-women and 7- men. No patients with infectious etiology of Schistosoma haematobium parasite were reported, which are more commonly encountered in endemic areas. Conclusions. Based on the aforementioned data, it should be mentioned that bladder cancer occurs more often in men with a mean age over 65, particularly from urban areas. The main risk factors for developing bladder cancer are as following: smoking and other harmful habits, occupational factors, infections, inflammation, radiation exposure, etc. The preventive measures consist of minimizing the risk factors. Smoking cessation is the most effective measure to prevent bladder cancer. The improvement of working conditions and protective measures might also prevent certain cases of occupational exposure. A total water intake of 2 litres per day, as well as frequent urination (more than 4 times a day) are crucial.
bladder tumors, risk factors