Adaptation of cultivars of the genus Rubus to ex vitro conditions
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TROFIM, Mariana; CHIORCHINA, Nina; LOZINSCHII, Mariana; CUZMIN, Elvira. Adaptation of cultivars of the genus Rubus to ex vitro conditions. In: Conservation of plant diversity. Ediția 4-a, 28-30 septembrie 2015, Chișinău. Chișinău: Gradina Botanica (Institut), 2015, p. 111. ISBN 978-9975-3036-8-2.
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Conservation of plant diversity
Ediția 4-a, 2015
Simpozionul "Conservation of plant diversity"
Chișinău, Moldova, 28-30 septembrie 2015

Adaptation of cultivars of the genus Rubus to ex vitro conditions


Pag. 111-111

Trofim Mariana, Chiorchina Nina, Lozinschii Mariana, Cuzmin Elvira
 
Botanical Garden (Institute) of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova
 
Disponibil în IBN: 15 mai 2019


Cuvinte-cheie
genus Rubus, cultivars, ex vitro, acclimatization


Teza

Along with the processes of plant development in aseptic conditions in vitro, the processes of development, adaptation and acclimatization of vitro cultures to ex vitro conditions play an important role in developing micropropagation technologies. The survival rate of plantlets that are moved from in vitro to ex vitro, in septic environment, depends on the skill with which accommodation of plantlets to the new conditions is achieved, especially protection from water stress, sunburn, extreme temperatures and air currents. Only after accommodation of plants to septic environment, they can be grown using agro-technical methods in open ground. [1, 2] A major problem in the widespread application of micropropagation technology is necrosis which severely affects plantlets when they are transferred from in vitro conditions to ex vitro conditions. The vegetal material that is transferred from culture room to greenhouse conditions dehydrates easily, withers and dies because of changes in environmental conditions. In order to protect plantlets from such consequences, a series of measures is taken, namely: acclimatization is performed gradually by decreasing air humidity and temperature, ventilation with controlled airflow, planting on optimal substrates for each cultivar. Plantlets are transferred in containers with small compartments of 25-30 ml, which have been previously filled with appropriate, moderately moist substrate and then are covered with transparent films, in order to maintain optimal humidity and temperature.  Effective acclimatization takes place in three stages:  Transfer of plantlets into containers and their maintenance under transparent films for 10-12 days at temperatures of 23-24 ºC, with regular ventilation 2-3 times a day and spraying with deionized water. Plants are kept under shade. As a result of testing the substrate, it has been found that the optimal one, for this stage, is peat with pH of 5.8-5.6. The explants that haven’t formed roots are transferred to perlite and sand mixture in a ratio of 1:1 for rhizogenesis, over a period of 20-25 days.  Transfer into bigger containers than the previous ones, of 125-155 ml, for a more efficient development of the root system, stems and leaves. At this stage, the plants have 2-3 leaflets, developed from the apex of the plant. Containers don’t need to be covered any more, but the air humidity and the protection from direct sunrays during 21-25 days are still important. For this acclimatization stage, the optimal substrate is considered the substrate composed of peat and lawn soil in a ratio of 1:1.  The plants that reach 8-10 cm high and have 6-8 leaflets are transferred to the substrate composed of lawn soil, peat, river sand and perlite in a ratio of 1:1:0.25:0.25. The substrate must be drained. Plants are transferred under a frame covered by thin fabric and are kept there for 21-25 days. In this period of time, the plants receive the necessary care: the substrate is moistened if necessary, mineral fertilizers are applied into the root zone once in 14 days, NPK – 7:10:12.  Analysing the results on adaptability of blackberry plants obtained during 3 years of research, we have found that during autumn-winter the vitality of blackberry cultivars Cester, Loch Ness, Remontana, Smoothen, Tayberry and Evergreen varies between 80-90 %. During spring-summer, the adaptability of the above mentioned cultivars constitutes 98-99%. [1, 3]